Bruce Willis and Edward Norton star in the comedy drama, which centres on two young lovers who leave their New England home, prompting a huge search party.
Bill Murray, who has worked with Anderson on Rushmore, The Royal Tenenbaums, The Life Aquatic and Fantastic Mr Fox, is also among the cast for the film, alongside Tilda Swinton, Jared Gilman and Kara Hayward.
Moonrise Kingdom is written by Anderson and Roman Coppola, the son of legendary Godfather director Francis Ford Coppola.
"Wes Anderson is one of the rising powers of American cinema, to which he brings a highly personal touch, particularly in Moonrise Kingdom, which once again is a testimony to the creative freedom in which he continues to evolve," said Thierry Fremaux, artistic director of the Cannes Film Festival.
Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris opened Cannes in 2011, while Russell Crowe's blockbuster Robin Hood kicked off the event in 2010.
The full Cannes 2012 schedule will be revealed on April 19. The festival runs from May 16 to May 27.
> Nanni Moretti named president of 2012 Cannes jury
> Marilyn Monroe unveiled as Cannes poster star
Watch the Moonrise Kingdom trailer below: