The movie, helmed by Sex Drive director Sean Anders and John Morris, is about a foul-mouthed playboy who attempts a reconciliation with his conservative son in order to get money for thousands of dollars in back taxes.
Samberg will play Sandler's son, who is gearing up for his wedding when his estranged father arrives.
Also starring in the movie are Gossip Girl actress Leighton Meester, Will Forte, Susan Sarandon and singer Ciara.
Sandler's last release, Jack & Jill, earned him a record breaking 11 nominations at the Razzie Awards, which honours the year's worst movies and performers in Hollywood.
Up next for Andy Samberg is a starring role in new BBC Three sitcom Cuckoo in the UK, opposite comic Greg Davies.
That's My Boy is scheduled for release on June 15 in the US and September 7 in the UK.
Watch the trailer for That's My Boy below: