The actress, who won an Oscar last year for her role in The Fighter, will play the mother of Shia LaBeouf's lead, reports Deadline.
Evan Rachel Wood and Mads Mikkelsen also star in the drama, which is directed by first-time helmer Fredrik Bond and centres on a man (LaBeouf) falling for a woman who has been claimed by a violent crime boss.
Leo is currently filming futuristic thriller Oblivion with Tom Cruise, Morgan Freeman and Andrea Riseborough.
She recently spoke out about the movie industry, deeming it "full of wannabes".
Watch the trailer for The Fighter below: