The Lord of the Rings actor features in Lance Daly's thriller as a young doctor who will do anything to impress his superiors.
His ambition turns to obsession when he begins to interfere with the medication of a beautiful 18-year-old patient (Riley Keough).
The film also features Rob Morrow, Troy Garity, Taraji P. Henson and Michael Peña.
The script for The Good Doctor was penned by Veronica Mars writer John Enborn.
Bloom will reprise his role as Legolas in the forthcoming Hobbit films.
The Good Doctor will debut on August 31 in the US. A UK release is yet to be confirmed.