The Australian comic and musician will appear in the Showtime comedy-drama's sixth season, reports Deadline.
Minchin will play eccentric rock star Atticus Fetch, who works with Hank Moody (Duchovny) on a Broadway musical.
When Hank's novel is adapted into the show A Crazy Little Thing Called Love, Fetch is recruited to write the music.
In real life, Minchin recently wrote Matilda: The Musical, based on the Roald Dahl novel. The West End show, which will debut on Broadway in 2014, won a record seven Olivier Awards earlier this week.
He has also acted on stage and has toured his comedy shows internationally, bringing his Heritage Orchestra performance to London's Royal Albert Hall in 2011.
Californication was picked up for a sixth run in February.
> Californication spinoff in the works
Watch Digital Spy's recent interview with Tim Minchin below: